Thursday, August 25, 2011

PART 4: The Practice of Wuquf Qalbi in the Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyah Order and the Survey on its Practoce in Malaysia


The performance thus starts with latifah al-qalb, followed by latifah al-ruh, latifah al-sirr, latifah al-khafi, latifah al-akhfa, latifah al-nafs al-natiqah and latifah kull al-jasad. After that wuquf qalbi is performed to all physical parts starting from eyes, ears, mouth, hands and so on. The duration of realization is around half an hour for each lata’if and physical parts. Thus, each disciple will take about three hours to complete arealization session of wuquf qalbi (Amaluddin, interview). There is another technique in realizing wuquf qalbi based on the third definition. The practical form is a disciple realizing it through focusing the thought of the seven lata’if towards only Allah. However, the practice must be performed in concert with dhikr Allah in the heart (Jahid, interview). After observing the different form and technique of the practice, the writer now understand that both technique do agree with the dhikr al-wuquf concept presented by Shaykh Sulayman al-Zuhdi previously. The difference is referring to the general and specific aspect contained in each definition. The first and second definition covers the specific aspect mentioned. Under close scrutiny, the definition specifically demands the seven lata’if along with all physical part to play their role in focusing the thought towards Allah.

The third definition is considered a general definition because one of the seven lata’if, that is latifah kull aljasad contain the physical aspect that covers all the physical parts mentioned in first and second definition. Latifah kull al-jasad is the dhikr delivery point that covers the whole body starting from head to toe of a disciple (Ishak 1986, pp. 4). Therefore, all physical parts mentioned in the first two definitions are included in the realization of latifah kull al-jasad. With regards to the difference in realization technique for wuquf qalbi either by chanting Allah along with focusing the thought towards Allah or only focusing the thought towards Allah without dhikr, the matter according to the writer is referring to the understanding attained through statements made by Shaykh Sulayman al-Zuhdi on the matter along with referring to the practiced passed down by the teacher leading the Order from one generation to the other. The statement made by Shaykh Sulayman al-Zuhdi on wuquf qalbi realization technique is “without forcing self (takalluf) in chanting dhikr Allah” (al-Zuhdi, pp.51). It is understood that wuquf qalbi is not practiced along with dhikr chanting the word Allah in the heart.

The statement can also be interpreted as the practice needs to be performed along with dhikr Allah in the heart until the state of wuquf qalbi emerges in the disciple inner self, then at that moment he no longer has to force himself chanting the word of dhikr in his heart. This also means that the disciple must constantly chant the word Allah in his heart in concert with the practice of wuquf qalbi until he reach the stage where dhikr is no longer forced upon him. Therefore the two techniques are still within the interpretation scope of al-Zuhdi’s statement. Regarding the practice of wuquf qalbi passed down through Sheikh `Abd al-Wahhab Rokan, the writer finds that the two techniques are practiced by the caliphs after him in Malaysia at present. A branch of the Order originates from Shaykh Yahya Shaykh `Abd al-Wahhab in Babussalam, Sumatera (Amaluddin, interview) while the other is traced to Shaykh `Umar Muhammad from Batu Pahat, Malaysia (Jahid, interview) and both figures are caliphs acknowledged by Shaykh `Abd al-Wahhab Rokan (Fadl Allah 1930, pp. 76).


The practice of wuquf qalbi is one of the main fundamentals in Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyyah because it is instrumental in enabling a person to build the attribute dawam al-hudur ma`a Allah, which is the pinnacle of the spiritual journey of the Order. The practice is also performed by members of the Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyyah in Malaysia and it is in tandem with the concept presented by Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyyah figures of the past. The difference or innovations in execution technique practiced in Malaysia does not show that it has swayed from the guideline of wuquf qalbi practiced shown by its predecessors. Even more the technical difference in the practice which happens in Malaysia is not more than an interpretation or innovation to better suit the needs of its followers.


‘Abazah, Nizar, al-Shaykh Khalid al-Naqshabandi al-`Alim al-Mujaddid Hayatuh wa ‘Ahammu Mu’allafatih,
Damsyik: Dar al-Fikr, 1994.
Abu al-Zahra’, ‘Uways bin `Abd Allah, al-Isharat al-Saniyyah li Saliki al-Tariqah al Naqshabandiyyah,
Qahira: Dar al-Mustafa. 2002.
al-Baghdadi, Muhammad bin Sulayman, al-Hadiqah al-Nadiyyah fi ‘Adabi al-Tariqah al-
Naqshabandiyyahwa al-Bahjah al-Khalidiyyah, Kaherah: al-Matba`ah al-`Ilmiyyah, 1310H.
al-Baghdadi, Muhammad bin Sulayman, al-Hadiqah al-Nadiyyah fi al-Tariqah al-Naqshabandiyyah wa al-
Bahjah al-Khalidiyyah, Istanbul: Maktabah al-Haqiqah, 2004.

al-Harawi, `Ali bin Husayn al-Wa`iz, Rashahat `Ayn al-Hayah, translated by Muhammad Murad bin `Abd
Allah al-Qazzani, Istanbul: al-Maktabah al-Islamiyyah. n.d.
al-Khani, `Abd al-Majid, al-Kawakib al-Durriyyah `ala al-Hada’iq al-Wardiyyah, edited by Muhammad
Khalid al-Kharsah, Bayrut: Dar al-Bayruti. 1997.
al-Khani, Muhammad bin `Abd Allah, al-Bahjah al-Saniyyah fi ‘Adab al-Tariqah al-`Aliyyah al-Khalidiyyah
al-Naqshabandiyyah, Turki: Maktabah al-Haqiqah, 1989.
al-Kurdi, Muhammad ‘Amin, al-Mawahib al-Sarmadiyyah fi Manaqib al-Sadah al-Naqshabandiyyah,
Kaherah: al-Maktabah al-‘Azhariyyah li al-Turath, 2005.
al-Sirhindi, Ahmad bin `Abd al-‘Ahad al-Faruqi, al-Maktubat al-Rabbaniyyah, 3 vols., Beirut: Dar al-Kutub
al-`Ilmiyyah. 2004.
al-Zuhdi, Sulayman bin Hasan bin Sulayman bin Mahmud, Masirah al-Hukm li al-Salikin `ala Sirah al-
Sa’irin, Majmu`ah al-Rasa’il `ala Usul al-Khalidiyyah, n.p., n.d..
al-Zuhdi, Sulayman bin Hasan bin Sulayman bin Mahmud, Sahifah al-Safa li ‘Ahl al-Wafa, Majmu`ah al-
Rasa’il `ala Usul al-Khalidiyyah, n.p., n.d..
Fadl Allah, Yahya bin `Abd al-Wahhab, Bab fi Kayfiyyah al-Dhikr, n.p., 1930
H. Ahmad Fuad Said, Sejarah Shaykh `Abd al-Wahhab Tuan Guru Babussalam, Indonesia: Pustaka
Babussalam. n.d.
Ibrahim Anis et. al. Mu`jam al-Wasit, c. 2, Beirut: Dar Amwaj li al-Tiba`ah. 1987.
Ishak bin Muhammad Arif, Fasal Pada Menyatakan Tiap-tiap Kaifiat Zikir Di dalam Tarekat
Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyyah, n.p., 1986.
Ishak bin Muhammad Arif, Risalah Kaifiat Zikir al-Naqshabandiyyah al-Khalidiyyah, Malaysia: n.p., n.d.
Jahid bin Sidek, Shaikh Dalam Ilmu Tariqah, Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya, 1997.
Makruf bin Ya’kob, Kaifiat Tariqat Naqsyabandiah, n.p., n.d.
Syed Hadzrullathfi bin Syed Omar, Dhikr Ism al-Dhat in Sufism and its practise in Naqshabandiyyah
Khalidiyyah Order in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur: Deprtment of Theology and Islamic Thought, Academy of
Islamic Study, Malaya University, 2010.
`Umar bin Muhammad, Kaifiat Istighfar Dengan Dhikr Ism al-Dhat `ala al-Tariqah al-`Aliyyah al-Naqshabandiyyah al-Mujaddidiyyah al-Khalidiyyah, n.p., n.d..
-------------, Bab Kayfiyyah Dhikr Wuquf Qalbi, n.p., n.d.


1. Amaluddin Noorshah, interviwed on 13th. August 2009, at Padang Rengas, Perak, West Malaysia. He is one of Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyyah Order’s successors in Malaysia.
2. Jahid bin Haji Sidek, interviwed on 9th. March 2009 at tawajjuh cerimony centre situated at Tok Jembal village in Kuala Terengganu, West Malaysia. He is a one of the foremost shaykh whose leads the Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyyah Order in Malaysia nowadays.