Thursday, August 25, 2011

PART 1: The Practice of Wuquf Qalbi in the Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyah Order and the Survey on its Practoce in Malaysia


Dr. Syed Hadzrullathfi Syed Omar
Department of Usuluddin, Faculty of Islamic Contemporary Studies
University of Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia
Phone 60199347600, Email:

Associate Prof. Che Zarrina Sa`ari
Department of Akidah and Islamic Thought, Academy of Islamic Studies
University of Malaya, Malaysia
Phone 60132725887, Email:


Wuquf Qalbi in Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyyah Sufi’s order is mainly discussed on this article to evaluate either the practice of Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyyah's order in the Malay Peninsula nowadays is coherence with the previous renown Naqshabadiyyah’s scholars or not. The article also attempts to highlight if any revolusion which related to the practice may occur particularly on the Khalidiyyah's order in Malaysia.

Keywords: Wuquf Qalbi; Naqshabandiyyah; Khalidiyyah


The practice of wuquf qalbi is one of the eleven pillars of the Naqshabandiyyah Order which is the main guideline to achieve ma`rifah Allah. Eight of the eleven pillars has been presented by Shaykh `Abd al-Khaliq al- Ghujdawani (d.575/1179), while the other three pillars were perfected by Shaykh Baha’ al- Din Naqshaband (d.791/1388) (Abu al-Zahra’ 2002, pp. 37). This article will explain in specific the concept of this practice as portrayed by its figures, to see the importance of the practice in the order’s institution. Apart from that, the article will identify its practical implementation in the Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyyah Order in Malaysia to see the similarities and differences or innovations when compared to the Naqshabandiyyah figures of the past.

The Stature Of Wuquf Qalbi Practice In Naqshabandiyyah Khalidiyyah Order

The wuquf qalbi practice is a pillar introduced by Shaykh Baha’ al-Din Naqshaband. He described wuquf qalbi as mandatory for it is the essence of every dhikr practice (Abu al-Zahra’ 2002, pp. 39). Without the practice each dhikr performed will be an empty movement of the tongue and the heart chanting the dhikr will be void of any benefits to the chanters (Abu al-Zahra’ 2002, pp. 63). Therefore, wuquf qalbi must be in existence throughout the dhikr process and in any activities outside the dhikr hours (Nizar 1994, pp. 30). As a matter of fact, wuquf qalbi which is also known as al-hudur, al-shuhud, al-wusul, and al-wujud among other Naqshabandiyyah figures (al-Harawi, pp. 32) is a practice that is closely related to other pillars introduced by Shaykh `Abd al-Khaliq al-Ghujdawani prior to Shaykh Baha’ al-Din (`Abd al-Majid 1997, pp. 355). All terminologies have their own meanings and each is a condition in their own right to be fulfilled by disciples to obtain ma`rifah Allah in accordance to their convictions.
The pillars previously mentioned were firstly; disciples must remember Allah (hudur) in each exhalation of breath (hush dardam); second, the mind and thoughts are not influenced by other than Allah (nazar bar qadam); third, migration from condemned behavior to commendable behavior (safar dar watan); fourth, the heart must always hudur with Allah even when being with the community (khalwah dar anjuman); fifth, perpetual dhikr using prescribed dhikr (yad kard); sixth, constant supplication to Allah using a special prayer i.e. Ilahi Anta Maqsudi wa ridaka matlubi (bazkusht); seventh, protecting the heart from any intruding thoughts other than Allah (nakah dashat); eight, to be in constant hudur with Allah without being forced (yad dashat). Whilst the other two pillars introduced by Shaykh Baha’ al-Din Naqshaband other than wuquf qalbi are wuquf zamani and wuquf `adadi. The meaning of wuquf zamani is a disciple must constantly check his beings every one or two hours, whether he is in the state of remembering Allah or otherwise. Wuquf `adadi is when any disciples performing the dhikr al-Nafy wa al-‘Ithbat, it must always be in odd numbers (`Abd al-Majid 1997, pp. 355). In reference to various pillars mentioned, it can be said that all meant to fulfill the conditions of wuquf qalbi. Such is due to wuquf qalbi representing the meaning of perpetual remembering of Allah (dawam al-hudur ma`a Allah). Therefore, it is not surprising if it is deemed as a pillar of the Naqshabandiyyah Order.

International Journal of Business and Social Science

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